Basic Rules of Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech Rules & Function in English Grammar

Parts of speech is one of the grammatical groups in which words are divided depending on their use in that context. This is why, in English grammar parts of speech is considered as the pillar of language. Without proper knowledge of the function, meaning, and usages of parts of speech, the learners will not be able to fill the gaps in a sentence successfully.

This is why today i will discuss over the basic idea of parts of speech and its function, meaning and usages in sentences. And you must concentrate on each class of parts of speeches and its usages through examples.

By the way, have you read the 2nd lesson on ”Classifications of Persons in English” in my Basic Grammar Lessons.
If you have read, then you presence here is ok but if not, please study that lessons first to continue the logical track of your active grammar learning.

At first notice this example and try to understand the parts of parts of speeches and how you should classify them in sentences.

Mr.Sarowar likes hot coffee in breakfast
Noun Verb Adjective Noun Preposition Noun

Let’s start now… 

Basic Classification of Parts of Speech

How many classes are in parts of speech?

In English language, parts of speeches can be divided into 8 classes based on their meaning, function, and usages in sentences.

parts of speech tree

You have to always remember these names and remember only memorizing the grammatical definition of each part cannot help you to apply that in sentences. In many grammar books, we normally study the definitions and examples of parts of speech. But here I want to focus basically on the usages of them in practical field.

Besides, I believe from my experience that this will help you a lot to learn parts of speeches successfully.

It’s not worthless if you have basic knowledge on each part of them. So, have a look….

Meaning of Parts of Speech

Secondly, we are going to learn the meaning of each part of speech in English which will give you a clear idea on each part of a sentence in English.

What are the basic meanings?

  • Noun = name of any person, thing, or idea. 
  • Pronoun = the alternative name of noun.
  • Adjective = the qualifier word of any person, thing, or idea.
  • Verb = the word which indicates action or condition.
  • Adverb = the qualifier of any action or the qualifier of the qualifier word of any person, thing, or idea.
  • Preposition = the word which indicates the relationship between words.
  • Conjunction = the word which connects several words.
  • Interjection = the word which shows emotion such as wonder, sorrow, or joy.

Yes, this is summary of parts of speeches and now you know that, don’t you?

Function

Thirdly, the major discussion belongs to function. Yes, now I want to tell you how you will classify each word in sentence? How will you tell that which word is noun or verb? It may be also adjective or adverb.

So, study carefully now but I have something to show you. 

Can you guess it?

Yaah… it is nothing but the magical theory that will help you to remember the ins and outs of parts of speeches easily. In order to understand the function of parts of speeches, we will use a logic that helps us to realize the function of each part of a sentence.

The theory based on function:

theory of parts of speech

This looks strange!

Ok here is the explanation for you on each element of theory.

Explanation of the Theory

W = who/what………………sentence? = Noun / Pronoun.
A = action word……………sentence? = Verb.
H = How…………. Noun/Pronoun? = Adjective.
H = How…………Verb/Adjective? = Adverb.
I = Indicator between two noun = Preposition.
L = Linking two words/sentences = Conjunction.
I = Impression of mind = Interjection.

Moreover, see the sentence below through which I will show you how to apply this logic practically and successfully.
 
Hurrah! we have won a prestigious prize for Soham and Robin finally.

If we want to analyze each part, I should do it thinking so….

Hurrah ! Interjection = the word which indicates impression of mind
we Pronoun = the alternate name of all who have several names or noun.
have won Verb = the word which indicates the action in the sentence.
a prestigious Adjective = (how———-prize which is noun?)
prize Noun = the name of object
for Preposition = that indicates the relationship between two noun words: ‘prize’ and ‘soham’
Soham Noun = indicates the name of a person
and Conjunction = that joins two noun words: ‘Soham’ and ‘Robin’
Robin Noun = indicates the name of a person
finally Adverb = the word which modifies the verb word: ‘have won’ and indicates the time of action

So, what have we got overall now?

Hurrah! we Have won A prestigious prize for Soham and Robin finally
Interjection Pronoun Verb Adjective Noun Preposition Noun Conjunction Noun Adverb

Most importantly, on this point you must remember that we have analyzed the parts of sentences into subject, verb, object, complement, and adjuncts on the previous lesson ”Analysis of Sentences”. That was structural classification but here, we are analyzing parts of sentences depending on functional classifications.

Usages of Parts of Speech

Here I will show you some particular words for each class and their usages. This chart is not enough but you can have a little idea on various forms of parts of speeches.

Noun man, mountain, state, ocean, country, building, cat, airline love, wealth,
happiness, pride, fear, religion, belief, history, communication milk, rice,
snow, rain, water, food, music, bunch, audience, flock, team, group, family, band,
village, etc.
Man is mortal.
Everybody wants to get happiness.
You should study History now.
Pronoun I, me, my, myself, mine, we, us, our, you, your, he, she, him, her, his, they,
them, their, it, itself, ourselves, themselves, this, that, who, whom, which,
both, none, somebody, something, nobody, nothing, all, any, etc.
I can help the boy now.
They give him a nice gift.
Will you help me?
Adjective Bad, good, little, many, much, few, little, red, well, interesting, Able,
Anxious, Beautiful , Certain, Continuous , Dangerous, Deep, Eager , Large, Equal,
Fresh, Hard, Low, Joyful, Short, Mad , Married , Melodious, National ,
Natural , Necessary , Negative , Neutral
The boy has enough money.
He is a good boy undoubtedly.
Is this oil natural?
Verb Am, is, are, was, were, being, been Have, has, had, having, Used to,  
Could, May, Must, Had better, Might, shall, will, Should, ought to,
Come, Eat, Cry, Cut, Dance, Dare, Deal, Die, Dream, Feel
could buy the gift.
He may think about it.
My friend hates drinking now.
Adverb quickly, silently, well, badly, very, really, Ago Twice, Almost, Thrice, Daily, Again, Ever, Always , Hither, Early, Thither, Enough,  Now, Fast, Then, Here, Once, There , Soon, More,  Sometimes, Never,  Yesterday, Only, Tomorrow, Quite He has just completed the work. He always helps the poor.
I will go to Dhaka tomorrow.
Preposition On, Over, Up, Upon, Beyond, Above, Under, Below, Down, Through, To,
From, Towards, For, In, Into, Around, Out of, Of, About, At, By, With
The student of this school is present.
The letter has come from Dhaka.
Put this cup on the table.
Conjunction and, but, when, And, As , well as, Until, Or,  Unless, But, Both ,Since,
As, Lest , So, However , While, Still ,That, Why , So that, How ,If, 
When , Though, Although, Where, Because, Who, Before, Which,
Than, Either …..or, As if, as though, Neither ….nor, After, Till
Soham or Sajib will come here timely.
He said that he was a regular student.
I will help you unless you go there again.
Interjection Hurrah!, Ha! Ha!, Alas!, Oh!, Bravo!, Shame!, Hush!, Hi!, Fie!
How/what!, Hallo!
Oh! What a nice place. Fie! You are a liar.

The aim of this chart is only to give you a basic idea on all the classes of parts of speech. But there are more examples and usages of them. However, my today’s intention is only present the basic discussion.

I hope I will discuss on each part separately and elaborately later. Meanwhile, you can practice this exercise to test your knowledge on parts of speech.

Do you have any question?

Last of all, this is all about the basic classifications and functions of parts of speech in English grammar. Please try to learn this basic grammar chapter attentively. Without proper knowledge on parts of speeches, you can’t learn other advanced lessons on English grammar. Let us know if you have any question on this lesson.