Present Indefinite Tense in English Grammar

In our daily life, the tense through which we express the daily activities or common events is called present indefinite tense. Moreover, any sentence expressing daily activities, universal truth, historical truth, regular habit, Observations and declarations, Instructions, Commentaries, or near future is also the indicator of present indefinite/simple tense.

Today, i will discuss the basic and primary features of Present Indefinite Tense. But this is not ending. Later, you will get the lesson on the variations of it.

Let’s have some examples: 

My brother works in a company.
He always stays up till midnight.

He doesn’t expect your help.
Do you really want work?

These sentences are given to give you a simple idea on present indefinite tense.Now, i want to start the basic discussion. Yes, it’s the structure of this tense and its negative and interrogative forms along with examples.

What’s the structure?

Structure: (verb present form/verb+s/es)

Example:
I go to school regularly.
He goes to school regularly.

Have you noticed one thing?

I hope, you have. Yes, it is the forms of verbs. When the subject is ‘I’, the verb ‘go’ is in base from. But, when the subject is ‘he’, the verb is changed into ‘goes’ adding ‘es’ at last.

Why?

This is the most important fact you are going to learn now. And you know, according to the research of Oxford University and Cambridge University, most of the English language learners do more mistakes in this case. So, be careful here!

The most important point!

If the subject of the sentence is 3rd person+ singular number such as (he/she/it/Soham/Bangladesh/America/Square Ltd./Dutch-Bangla bank), the suffix ‘s/es’ will be added at the last of verb. On the other hand, if the subject seems 1st person, 2nd person, or 3rd person + plural number, the verb will remain in base form and nothing will be added at the last of verb in that sentence.
See these examples:
He talks in French language.
Bangladesh deserves the good harvest.
We fail in the debate competition.

Actually, students become confused more in case of selecting 3rd person+ Singular number. So, read this notes:

Subjects: 3rd person+ Singular number

He/she/it- fixed pronoun
Rohan, Michel, John, Ruby- any single person
Bangladesh, America, England, Japan, Dhaka, New york- any country, city, name of place
Square Ltd., Liverpool, Pepsi- any company, organization, brand, group, team, product,etc
Sun, moon- any single natural object
Government, committee, section- any group acts as a single authority.

Other Subjects: Except these subjects, all other subjects will be considered as 1st person, 2nd person, or 3rd person+ plural number.

I think you have another one problem and it is about adding ‘s/es’ after the verb. Right!

Where to add ‘s’ and where ‘es’?

When you will get Verbs ending in ‘ss’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’, ‘x’ and ‘o’, you have to add ‘es’ after the verb, instead of ‘s’ alone, to form the third person singular+ singular number verb.
 
Here are examples:
I kiss her.
The boy kisses the girl.
We rush to the spot.
He rushes to the spot.
You do the work always.
She does the work always.
I watch TV every evening.
My sister watches TV every evening.
I go to school by bus.
he goes to school by bus.

Note:When ‘y’ follows a consonant, you must change the ‘y’ into ‘i’ and add ‘es’

For an example,

You cry when you become afraid.
She cries when she becomes afraid.

Is (Verb+s/es) only structure of present indefinite tense?

No..it’s not.
Actually, you will add ‘s/es’ when the verb is principal verb such as: go,see,do,take,watch,etc. But if the ‘be verb’ or ‘have verb’ is used in a sentence as the one and only verb, there is nothing to add ‘s/es’ after verb.

 
When I’ll use ‘be verbs’ & ‘have verbs’?

You must know ‘be verb’ in present tense means (am/is/are) and ‘have verb’ means (have/has). 

If in a sentence there happens nothing or no action but the verb express
the condition such as (someone or something seems), we will use- am/is/are

But if we want to means that someone or something has anything or anybody, we will use- have/has 

But remember, these verbs must be used as one and only verbs in those sentences.
Example:
I am tired now.
He is busy today
we are ready for the match.
He has a nice school bag.
I have a nice cup.

Let’s discuss the negative and interrogative structures  of Present Indefinite Tense

Negative Structure:  (do/does not+verb present form)
Example:
I do not go to school regularly.
He does not go to school regularly.

Interrogative Structure: (do/does+subject+main verb+object?)
 
Example:
Do I go to school regularly?
Does he go to school regularly?

Now there are 2 points, you have to remember

Point:1

You must use a form of ‘do’ in negatives and questions. We use ‘do’ and ‘don’t’ except in the third person singular, where we use ‘does’ and ‘doesn’t’. And we do not add ‘s/es’ to the verb in negatives and questions.

Examples:
We don’t live far away.
He doesn’t want to go shopping.
Do you live here?
What does he want?

Point:2

The verb ‘do’ and ‘does’ is normally contracted in the negative and negative interrogative structures.

Example:
I don’t work, he doesn’t work, don’t, I work? doesn’t he work?
Now, you should know what types of sentences belong to present indefinite tense.
 

Types of Sentences in  Present Indefinite Tense

Any sentence expressing daily activities, universal truth, historical truth, regular habit, Observations and declarations, Instructions, Commentaries or near future will be in present indefinite tense. 

See these examples to understand these terms:

  • Daily activities – We play cricket in this field.
  • Universal truth – The sun rises in the east.
  • Historical truth – Akbar attacks India finally.
  • Regular habit – Mother cooks rice thrice a day.
  • Near future – I go to Dhaka tonight.
  • Observations and declarations – I hope you will do better.
  • Instructions – Go there and wait for me.
  • Commentaries – Ronaldo shows his cleverness.

Note: In case of near future, if any sentence contains the future tense marker within itself, it will be marked as present indefinite tense.

This is a chart of the words considered as ‘near future’

Tomorrow Today After a while
Tonight Tomorrow night Within/by a few hours

Example:
My father goes to Dhaka tonight.

These are all about the basic features of Present Indefinite Tense. Later, i will discuss the variations of Present Indefinite Tense. Try to study this attentively. And if you have any question, let me know that on comment section.

Thank you very much