Future Indefinite Tense in English Grammar

Any general action or event of our daily life that will happen in future is considered as Future Indefinite Tense. The future form of verb is the major fact to be considered in this tense. When we expect or imagine that something will happen in future moment, we express that action or event in the structure of Future Indefinite Tense. It is the 10th part of the lesson Tense and its classification.

My today’s discussion is on the structures of Future Indefinite Tense, its negative and interrogative forms, and its variations. I will explain each topic with examples. If you want to learn the Future Indefinite Tense successfully, you have to study the examples attentively.

So, let’s start the lesson…
Read the sentences below:
I will help the boy in his problem.
They shall observe the problem as soon as possible.

You see that, in the structure of future indefinite sentence, there is an auxiliary verb: ‘shall/will’ before the base form of verb. Yes, the auxiliary verb: ‘shall/will’ is the sign of Future Indefinite Tense. And since ‘shall or will’ is the modal auxiliary verb, you must use the base form of principal verb after it. You cannot use ‘shall/will’ alone in a sentence as a verb.

So, the structure of Future Indefinite Tense is:

Structure:  Shall/will+ (base form of verb)

Now, you can ask me the question on the usages of ‘shall and will’. Yes, it is nothing different but the similar to the function of Present Indefinite Tense. In the place of (subject 1st person), you will use ‘shall’. In all other places, you will use ‘will’ as an auxiliary verb.

In modern English, now there is no certain difference between ‘shall’ and ‘will’. You can use any one of them in any place you like. Yes, it expresses that if you use the ‘will’ in the place of ‘shall’, it expresses stronger possibility of the future action.

But, I personally like to use the auxiliary verb ‘will’. It seems more formal in all places.

Now, see the negative and interrogative structures of Future Indefinite Tense:

Negative Structure: (Shall/will)+ not + base form of verb
Example:
I will not help the boy in his problem.
They shall not join in this party.

Interrogative Structure: (Shall/will)+subject+ base form of verb +object?
Example:
Will I help the boy in his problem?
Shall they join in this party?

There are a few variations in Future Indefinite Tense. You should know those facts in order to apply this tense effectively.

Variations of Future Indefinite Tense

Variation-01:
In order to express the future action, we use the auxiliary verbs: ‘shall/will’ in the structure of verb. But there are some situations which express the obligations or duties in future moment. In such cases, we will use a different verb structure in sentences. It is the modal auxiliary verbs: ‘has to/have to’. If we use ‘has to or have to’ instead of ‘shall/will’ before the principal verb, it expresses the obligation of the action in future.
Here are examples in sentences:
I have to go to Dhaka tomorrow.
(This means that ‘going Dhaka tomorrow’ is an obligation on me. Whether I like it or not, I have to go)
You have to water in this garden.
He has to finish his homework timely.

Note: there are more modal auxiliary verbs which express the future sense such as ‘may/can/might’. The sentence having such verb should be considered as future indefinite tense.

Variation-02:
There are some certain phrases or words in English language which express the future senses. So, if we get those elements in any sentence, we should use the future structure in verb. Here is a list of those future tense marker words or phrases:

Tomorrow Possibly Perhaps
After a while Probably Within a few days

Example:
The boy will come here tomorrow.
Possibly, he will join in this function at last.

Variation-03:
In order to express the future ideas, imagination or expectation of the speaker, we use the structure of future indefinite tense. In such places, there are some verbs which help us to identify such contexts. Here are those verbs below in chart:

Assume Believe Hope
Wonder Daresay Know
Feel Doubt Suppose
Sure Expect Think

Example:
I hope, they will attend the party timely.
I doubt, he will miss the train today.

Variation-04:
If we apply conditional sentences, we should follow the structure of future indefinite tense. If the conditional sentence starts with the Present Indefinite Tense, we should use the future indefinite structure in verb in next sentence.
Example:
If you come in the office timely, I will grant your promotion as soon as possible.
If he takes the medicine properly, he will be fit soon.

Usages of Future Indefinite Tense in practical life

  
Usage-01: In order to express general wish, we use Future Indefinite Tense.
Example:
I will go on the party of your birthday.
They shall give you a nice book on your birthday.

Usage-02: In order to announce any future official event or the weather report, we use Future Indefinite Tense.
Example:
The chairman will distribute the relief products among all tomorrow morning.
The news says that it may rain today.

So, you have read all the points and situations of Future Indefinite Tense here and how they are used in different situations based on the contexts. Now apply this tense in your daily and practical life to express the thoughts of the future. I hope you can do it.

Thank you very much.